Film Development

Film development chart

In the table below all temperatures are at 20°C/68°F and times are for 35mm and 120 film. Use the links under the notes column to see examples of my results. I refer to this chart if you want to use different temperatures.
Use the comment section at the bottom of this page to ask questions or share your results.


Film ▾ Developer Dilution EI Time Notes
Adox CHS 100 ART HC-110 dilution E 100 ISO 8:30 min View
Adox CHS 100 ART APH 09 1:150 100 ISO 2 hours stand developed, 1gr borax, View
Adox CHS 100 ART APH 09 1:167 200 ISO 2 hours stand developed, 1gr borax, View
Adox CHS 100 ART Rodinal 1:200 100 ISO 2 hours stand developed, 1gr borax, View
Adox CHS 100 ART Rodinal 1:200 160 ISO 2 hours stand developed, 1gr borax, View
Adox CHS 100 II HC-110 dilution E 100 ISO 9 min View
Adox CHS 25 ART APH 09 1:120 25 ISO 1 hour stand developed, 1gr borax, View
Adox CHS 25 ART Rodinal 1:150 25 ISO 1 hour stand developed,View
Adox CHS 25 ART HC-110 dilution E 25 ISO 10:30 min View
Adox CHS 25 ART APH 09 1:80 25 ISO 12 min View
Adox CHS 25 ART Rodinal 1:50 25 ISO 8:30 min View
Adox CHS 25 ART Rodinal 1:150 25 ISO 1 hour stand developed, fogged, needed borax View
Adox CHS 25 ART Rodinal 1:200 25 ISO 2 hours stand developed, 1gr borax, View
Adox CHS 50 ART Rodinal 1:100 50 ISO 18 min View
Adox CHS 50 ART Rodinal 1:50 40 ISO 9 min View
Adox CHS 50 ART APH 09 1:40 50 ISO 9 min View
Adox CHS 50 ART Rodinal 1:200 50 ISO 2 hours stand developed, 1gr borax, View
Adox CHS 50 ART HC-110 dilution B 50 ISO 7 min View
Adox PAN 25 HC-110 dilution F 25 ISO 13:30 min View
Adox Silvermax HC-110 1+47 (dilution E) 100 ISO 10:30 min
Efke IR820 AURA Rodinal 1:50 6 ISO 11 min With Hoya R72 filter.View
Efke IR820 APH 09 1:40 100 ISO 11 min With Hoya R72 filter.View
Foma Fomapan 100 APH 09 1:167 100 ISO 2 hours View
Foma Fomapan 100 HC-110 dilution H 100 ISO 10 min View
Foma Fomapan 200 HC-110 dilution H 200 ISO 7 min View
Foma Fomapan 400 HC-110 dilution E 400 ISO 10:30 min View
Foma Fomapan 400 HC-110 dilution B 1600 ISO 13 min View
Fuji Neopan 100 Acros HC-110 dilution G 100 ISO 32 min View
Fuji Neopan 100 Acros Rodinal 1:50 64 ISO 13 min View
Fuji Neopan 100 Acros Rodinal 1:50 100 ISO 13 min View
Fuji Neopan 100 Acros HC-110 dilution E 100 ISO 7 min View
Fuji Neopan 100 Acros HC-110 dilution H 80 ISO 9 min View
Fuji Neopan 100 Acros Caffenol-C-M NA 100 ISO 11 min View
Fuji Neopan 100 Acros Caffenol-C-M NA 200 ISO 11 min Negatives under-exposed, no need to expose Acros at EI 200 for use with Caffenol, it should be fine at EI 100.
View
Fuji Neopan 100 Acros Rodinal 1:200 125 ISO 2 hours stand developed, 1gr borax, View
Fuji Neopan 100 Acros APH 09 1:80 100 ISO 19 min View
Fuji Neopan 400 HC-110 dilution H 400 ISO 10 min View
Fuji Neopan 400 HC-110 dilution E 800 ISO 11 min View
Ilford FP4 Plus Rodinal 1:200 160 ISO 2 hours stand developed, 1gr borax, View
Ilford FP4 Plus Rodinal 1:50 80 ISO 9 min View
Ilford FP4 Plus Rodinal 1:50 125 ISO 15 min View
Ilford FP4 Plus HC-110 dilution B 200 ISO 12 min I am trying for a contrasty, film noir look; View
Ilford FP4 Plus HC-110 dilution B 125 ISO 9 min View
Ilford FP4 Plus Rodinal 1:50 80 ISO 10 min View
Ilford HP5 Plus HC-110 dilution H 400 ISO 10 min View
Ilford PAN-F Plus HC-110 dilution E 50 ISO 5:30 min View
Ilford PAN-F Plus Rodinal 1:50 50 ISO 11 min View
Ilford SFX 200 Rodinal 1:50 100 ISO 11 min With Hoya R72 filter.View
Ilford SFX 200 Rodinal 1:50 200 ISO 10 min With Ilford SFX200 filter. View
Ilford SFX 200 HC-110 dilution B 200 ISO 9 min With Ilford SFX200 filter,
+4 stops (set ISO 12 on camera), View
Kodak T-MAX 100 Rodinal 1:50 80 ISO 12 min With Orange filterView
Kodak T-MAX 400 HC-110 dilution E 400 ISO 8:30 min View
Kodak T-MAX 400 HC-110 dilution B 1600 ISO 7:30 min View
Kodak TRI-X HC-110 dilution H 400 ISO 11 min View
Kodak TRI-X APH 09 1:40 800 ISO 17 min View
Kodak TRI-X HC-110 dilution B 800 ISO 11 min View
Kodak TRI-X HC-110 dilution D 1600 ISO 17:30 min View
Rollei Pan 25 Rodinal 1:100 25 ISO 1 hour stand developed,View
Rollei Pan 25 HC-110 diliution G 25 ISO 22 min View

 

DisclaimerBecause of many different factors, the results I obtained can and will almost certainly differ from the results you will get if you use the same values. These factors include difference in the built-in lightmeter in the respective cameras, the type of metering used (spot or average,) how constant you can keep your temperatures, the contrast of the subject at the moment of shooting and, last but not least, the agitation used. Use the values above as a starting value only for your own explorations.

Pushing film

If you’re caught out without enough light to get the exposure that you want, etc., you could push the film, effectively underexposing it and correcting for the underexposure during development by developing longer. You would expose an ISO 100 film at ISO 200 (1 stop), or an ISO 400 film at ISO 800 (1 stop) or 1600 (2 stops) and typically you would change the ISO setting on your camera or lightmeter and just follow the lightmeter readings. When shooting 135 or 120/220 format film, pushing or pulling a film effects the whole film as not many people develop sections of the film differently. When pushing film, you can expect added contrast due to the fact that not all values are raised equally when extending the development time: the shadows stay where they are, underexposed, and only the highlights are raised. Depending on the scene it can be a desired effect.

Pulling film

Where pushing film underexposes film, pulling film goes the other way and overexposes the film and corrects for the overexposure by using a shorter development time during development. It is typically used to get less contrast in high-contrast environments.

Stand Development

I first read about stand development in a blog posting on Aminus3.com and quickly became interested. A good reference book is Iridescent Light which I would recommend if you want more information about different films and developers.
I usually use a 5 minutes pre-soak in water and agitate for 1 minute after pouring in the developer. Then I bang the tank on the table to dislodge airbubles and leave it to stand for the period I have decided upon. I use a 50 watt unbreakable aquarium heater and a Greisinger GTH 175/PT thermometer to control the temperature. For stand development I mix the developer with de-ionised battery water as it is much cheaper than distilled water and about as clean. To minimize fogging of the negatives, I have started mixing a little borax in with the developer. Borax would normally be sold as a cleaning product in supermarkets but might be difficult to find in an EU country as of 2010. If you cannot find it, it is still sold via photo stores.

Agitation

When using Rodinal, unless I am stand developing, I start out with thirty seconds of gentle inversions, then 2 inversion per minute for the first 3 minutes, 2 seconds for each inversion, then 2 inversions every 3 minutes for the remaining time.

When using HC-110, I start out with for the first 3 minutes 2 inversions every 30 seconds, then 2 inversions every minute.

Downloads

Download the film development information of this site in three different eBook formats for free: Kindle/MOBI, EPUB or PDFnew version 2011/02/19, these documents will be updated occasionally. I’m glad that I see this page and these documents recommended in the different film forums on the Internet by people who have received equally good results with the films I have described, keep film alive! If you would like to share the information of this page or the document with others, please refer them to this page instead of forwarding the file so people will always have the latest version.

Film details

At the moment Foma Fomapan is my favourite brand followed by Fuji because of the Neopan 100 Acros film. Click on the names to browse my blog by these film brands to see why. Things to look forward to in the first half of 2011: Landscape photography with Efke Infrared ‘AURA’ 120 roll on my Pentax 645NII, I already have the Hoya Infrared R72 Filter.

Reciprocity failure

With long or very short exposures, the inverse relationship between light intensity and duration breaks down for most films. Some films only need a tiny correction, others do need a lot more. Typically the film datasheets do cover this to some extend, but you can find a great table covering most of the popular B&W films here. Make sure to leave thanks in this forum.

Film datasheets B&W

  • Efke / Adox CHS 25 ART, see here.
  • Efke / Adox CHS 50 ART, see here.
  • Efke / Adox CHS 100 ART, see here.
  • Efke / MACO IR820c and IR820c AURA, see here.
  • Foma Fomapan 100 Classic, see here.
  • Foma Fomapan 200 Creative, see here.
  • Foma Fomapan 400 Action, see here.
  • Foma Fomapan R 100, see here and here.
  • Fuji Neopan 100 Acros, see here.
  • Fuji Neopan 400, see here.
  • Ilford FP4 Plus, see here.
  • Ilford HP5 Plus, see here.
  • Ilford PAN-F Plus, see here.
  • Ilford SFX 200, see here.
  • Rollei PAN 25, see here.
  • Kodak TRI-X, see here.

 

Film datasheets colour and slide film

  • Fuji Fujichrome Velvia 50, see here.
  • Fuji Fujichrome Velvia 100, see here.
  • Fuji Fujichrome Velvia 100F, see here.

 

Developer details

Since I develop at most a few films a week, I prefer to use one shot developers, and the syrup based developers like AGFA Rodinal and Kodak HC-110 are perfect for my needs.

  • Agfa Rodinal and clones, see here and here.
  • Kodak HC-110, see here.
  • ADOX ADOLUX® APH 09, see here

 

You want to know more?

Leave a comment or question below or join me in the ADOX Film Facebook group, the Facebook Stand Development group or the Film Development Google+ community.

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  • yrsa says:

    thanks so much for this.